U.S. Federal Government Releases National Report on Climate Change
While many Americans were shopping this Black Friday, the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), a Federal program mandated by Congress, released its fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA), a report that "assesses the science of climate change and variability and its impacts across the United States, now and throughout this century".
View the full report: https://nca2018.globalchange.gov/
The following text is pulled from the report summary, which "represent a high-level synthesis of the material in the underlying report". Read the full summary here.
Climate change creates new risks and exacerbates existing vulnerabilities in communities across the United States, presenting growing challenges to human health and safety, quality of life, and the rate of economic growth.
Without substantial and sustained global mitigation and regional adaptation efforts, climate change is expected to cause growing losses to American infrastructure and property and impede the rate of economic growth over this century.
3. Interconnected Impacts
Climate change affects the natural, built, and social systems we rely on individually and through their connections to one another. These interconnected systems are increasingly vulnerable to cascading impacts that are often difficult to predict, threatening essential services within and beyond the Nation’s borders.
4. Actions to Reduce Risks
Communities, governments, and businesses are working to reduce risks from and costs associated with climate change by taking action to lower greenhouse gas emissions and implement adaptation strategies. While mitigation and adaptation efforts have expanded substantially in the last four years, they do not yet approach the scale considered necessary to avoid substantial damages to the economy, environment, and human health over the coming decades.
The quality and quantity of water available for use by people and ecosystems across the country are being affected by climate change, increasing risks and costs to agriculture, energy production, industry, recreation, and the environment.
Impacts from climate change on extreme weather and climate-related events, air quality, and the transmission of disease through insects and pests, food, and water increasingly threaten the health and well-being of the American people, particularly populations that are already vulnerable.
7. Indigenous Peoples
Climate change increasingly threatens Indigenous communities’ livelihoods, economies, health, and cultural identities by disrupting interconnected social, physical, and ecological systems.
8. Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services
Ecosystems and the benefits they provide to society are being altered by climate change, and these impacts are projected to continue. Without substantial and sustained reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions, transformative impacts on some ecosystems will occur; some coral reef and sea ice ecosystems are already experiencing such transformational changes.
Rising temperatures, extreme heat, drought, wildfire on rangelands, and heavy downpours are expected to increasingly disrupt agricultural productivity in the United States. Expected increases in challenges to livestock health, declines in crop yields and quality, and changes in extreme events in the United States and abroad threaten rural livelihoods, sustainable food security, and price stability.
Our Nation’s aging and deteriorating infrastructure is further stressed by increases in heavy precipitation events, coastal flooding, heat, wildfires, and other extreme events, as well as changes to average precipitation and temperature. Without adaptation, climate change will continue to degrade infrastructure performance over the rest of the century, with the potential for cascading impacts that threaten our economy, national security, essential services, and health and well-being.
11. Oceans & Coasts
Coastal communities and the ecosystems that support them are increasingly threatened by the impacts of climate change. Without significant reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions and regional adaptation measures, many coastal regions will be transformed by the latter part of this century, with impacts affecting other regions and sectors. Even in a future with lower greenhouse gas emissions, many communities are expected to suffer financial impacts as chronic high-tide flooding leads to higher costs and lower property values.
12. Tourism and Recreation
Outdoor recreation, tourist economies, and quality of life are reliant on benefits provided by our natural environment that will be degraded by the impacts of climate change in many ways.
Note About Report Assumptions
In 2014, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) established four possible trajectories for when global annual greenhouse gas emissions would peak, so scientists could assess the impacts of these different scenarios. Two of the four scenarios were used in the NCA. On the lower-risk end, it considered a world where emissions peak around 2040, and then decline (called RCP 4.5); on the highest-risk end, it considered a world where emissions continue to rise throughout the 21st century (RCP8.5). Read more about the Representative Cncentration Pathways (RCPs) (or here on Wikipedia) and the NCA's selection of these pathways.
Scenarios Developed as Inputs to the U.S. National Climate Assessment
"...documents, graphics, references to data sets, and other resources...prepared to depict a range of plausible future conditions against which risks, vulnerability, and opportunities can be assessed at regional and national scale."
U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administation's State Climate Summaries
"These State Climate Summaries were produced to meet a demand for state-level information... [and] cover assessment topics directly related to NOAA’s mission, specifically historical climate variations and trends, future climate model projections of climate conditions during the 21st century, and past and future conditions of sea level and coastal flooding."